Key Scientific References

Below are key references that support and validate our scientific approach, including the health markers we analyze and the nutrition recommendations we provide.

Personalized Nutrition

Scientific evidence that demonstrates personalized nutrition recommendations outperform a one-size fits all approach.

  1. Celis-Morales C, Livingstone KM, Marsaux CF, Macready AL, Fallaize R, O'Donovan CB, Woolhead C, Forster H, Walsh MC, Navas-Carretero S, San-Cristobal R, Tsirigoti L, Lambrinou CP, Mavrogianni C, Moschonis G, Kolossa S, Hallmann J, Godlewska M, Surwillo A, Traczyk I, Drevon CA, Bouwman J, van Ommen B, Grimaldi K, Parnell LD, Matthews JN, Manios Y, Daniel H, Martinez JA, Lovegrove JA, Gibney ER, Brennan L, Saris WH, Gibney M, Mathers JC; Food4Me Study. Effect of personalized nutrition on health-related behaviour change: evidence from the Food4Me European randomized controlled trial. Int J Epidemiol. 2017 Apr 1;46(2):578-588. View >
  2. de Roos B, Brennan L. Personalised Interventions-A Precision Approach for the Next Generation of Dietary Intervention Studies. Nutrients. 2017 Aug 9;9(8). View >
  3. de Toro-Martín J, Arsenault BJ, Després JP, Vohl MC. Precision Nutrition: A Review of Personalized Nutritional Approaches for the Prevention and Management of Metabolic Syndrome. Nutrients. 2017 Aug 22;9(8). View >
  4. Korem T, Zeevi D, Zmora N, Weissbrod O, Bar N, Lotan-Pompan M, Avnit-Sagi T, Kosower N, Malka G, Rein M, Suez J, Goldberg BZ, Weinberger A, Levy AA, Elinav E, Segal E. Bread Affects Clinical Parameters and Induces Gut Microbiome-Associated Personal Glycemic Responses. Cell Metab. 2017 Jun 6;25(6):1243-1253.e5. View >
  5. Livingstone KM, Celis-Morales C, Navas-Carretero S, San-Cristobal R, Macready AL, Fallaize R, Forster H, Woolhead C, O'Donovan CB, Marsaux CF, Kolossa S, Tsirigoti L, Lambrinou CP, Moschonis G, Godlewska M, Surwiłło A, Drevon CA, Manios Y, Traczyk I, Gibney ER, Brennan L, Walsh MC, Lovegrove JA, Saris WH, Daniel H, Gibney M, Martinez JA, Mathers JC; Food4Me Study. Effect of an Internet-based, personalized nutrition randomized trial on dietary changes associated with the Mediterranean diet: the Food4Me Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Aug;104(2):288-97. View >
  6. Blanco-Rojo R, Alcala-Diaz JF, Wopereis S, Perez-Martinez P, Quintana-Navarro GM, Marin C, Ordovas JM, van Ommen B, Perez-Jimenez F, Delgado-Lista J, Lopez-Miranda J. The insulin resistance phenotype (muscle or liver) interacts with the type of diet to determine changes in disposition index after 2 years of intervention: the CORDIOPREV-DIAB randomised clinical trial. Diabetologia. 2015 Oct 16. View >
  7. Zeevi D, Korem T, Zmora N, Israeli D, Rothschild D, Weinberger A, Ben-Yacov O, Lador D, Avnit-Sagi T, Lotan-Pompan M, Suez J, Mahdi JA, Matot E, Malka G, Kosower N, Rein M, Zilberman-Schapira G, Dohnalová L, Pevsner-Fischer M, Bikovsky R, Halpern Z, Elinav E, Segal E. Personalized Nutrition by Prediction of Glycemic Responses. Cell. 2015 Nov 19;163(5):1079-1094. View >
  8. Inzucchi SE, Bergenstal RM, Buse JB, Diamant M, Ferrannini E, Nauck M, Peters AL, Tsapas A, Wender R, Matthews DR. Management of hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes: a patient-centered approach. Position statement of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Diabetologia. 2012 Jun;55(6):1577-96. View >

Systems Biology Approach

This paper outlines our systems biology approach to nutrition, in which we provide dietary recommendations based on the interactions within biological systems.

  1. van Ommen B, van den Broek T, de Hoogh I, van Erk M, van Someren E, Rouhani-Rankouhi T, Anthony JC, Hogenelst K, Pasman W, Boorsma A, Wopereis S. Systems biology of personalized nutrition. Nutr Rev. 2017 Aug 1;75(8):579-599. View >

Metabolic Markers

Includes key references supporting the fasting and non-fasting blood biomarkers we analyze as well as the Habit Challenge® Shake, a clinically validated metabolic challenge shake used to assess changes in nutrition-related blood biomarkers.

  1. Wopereis S, Stroeve JHM, Stafleu A, Bakker GCM, Burggraaf J, van Erk MJ, Pellis L, Boessen R, Kardinaal AAF, van Ommen B. Multi-parameter comparison of a standardized mixed meal tolerance test in healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects: the PhenFlex challenge. Genes Nutr. 2017 Aug 29;12:21. View >
  2. Winters BL, Anthony JA, Remensperger A, Boorsma A, Vandenbroek T, Maki K. Validation of a macronutrient mixed challenge beverage for personalized nutrition applications using a reduced sampling period. FASEB J 2017;31:lb289. View >
  3. Jellinger PS, Handelsman Y, Rosenblit PD, Bloomgarden ZT, Fonseca VA, GarberAJ, Grunberger G, Guerin CK, Bell DSH, Mechanick JI, Pessah-Pollack R, Wyne K, Smith D, Brinton EA, Fazio S, Davidson M. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY GUIDELINES FOR MANAGEMENT OF DYSLIPIDEMIA AND PREVENTION OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE. Endocr Pract. 2017 Apr;23(Suppl 2):1-87. View >
  4. van den Broek TJ, Kremer BHA, Marcondes Rezende M, Hoevenaars FPM, Weber P, Hoeller U, van Ommen B, Wopereis S. The impact of micronutrient status on health: correlation network analysis to understand the role of micronutrients in metabolic-inflammatory processes regulating homeostasis and phenotypic flexibility. Genes Nutr. 2017 Feb 8;12:5. View >
  5. EFSA (European Food Safety Authority), 2017. Technical report of the public consultation on the draft guidance on the assessment of the biological relevance of data in scientific assessments. EFSA supporting publication 2017:EN-129652pp.doi:10.2903/sp.efsa. 2017. EN-1296 View >
  6. Kardinaal AF, van Erk MJ, Dutman AE, Stroeve JH, van de Steeg E, Bijlsma S, Kooistra T, van Ommen B, Wopereis S. Quantifying phenotypic flexibility as the response to a high-fat challenge test in different states of metabolic health. FASEB J. 2015 Nov;29(11):4600-13. View >
  7. Stroeve, JHM, van Wietmarschen, H, Kremer BHA, van Ommen B, Wopereis S. Phenotypic flexibility as a measure of health: the optimal nutritional stress response test. Genes Nutr. 2015 May;10(3):13 View >
  8. Esser D, Mars M, Oosterink E, Stalmach A, Müller M, Afman LA. Dark chocolate consumption improves leukocyte adhesion factors and vascular function in overweight men. FASEB J. 2014 Mar;28(3):1464-73. View >
  9. Cruz-Teno C, Pérez-Martínez P, Delgado-Lista J, Yubero-Serrano EM, García-Ríos A, Marín C, Gómez P, Jiménez-Gómez Y, Camargo A, Rodríguez-Cantalejo F, Malagón MM, Pérez-Jiménez F, Roche HM, López-Miranda J. Dietary fat modifies the postprandial inflammatory state in subjects with metabolic syndrome: the LIPGENE study. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2012 Jun;56(6):854-65. View >
  10. Pellis L, van Erk MJ, van Ommen B, Bakker GC, Hendriks HF, Cnubben NH, Kleemann R, van Someren EP, Bobeldijk I, Rubingh CM, Wopereis S. Plasma metabolomics and proteomics profiling after a postprandial challenge reveal subtle diet effects on human metabolic status. Metabolomics. 2012 Apr;8(2):347-359. View >
  11. National Cholesterol Education Program. ATP III Guidelines at-a-Glance Quick Desk Reference. [Bethesda, Md.] :[National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute], 2001. Print. View >

DNA

References that explain gene variations experimentally shown to be associated with health and nutrition.

  1. Grimaldi KA, van Ommen B, Ordovas JM, Parnell LD, Mathers JC, Bendik I, Brennan L, Celis-Morales C, Cirillo E, Daniel H, de Kok B, El-Sohemy A, Fairweather-Tait SJ, Fallaize R, Fenech M, Ferguson LR, Gibney ER, Gibney M, Gjelstad IMF, Kaput J, Karlsen AS, Kolossa S, Lovegrove J, Macready AL, Marsaux CFM, Alfredo Martinez J, Milagro F, Navas-Carretero S, Roche HM, Saris WHM, Traczyk I, van Kranen H, Verschuren L, Virgili F, Weber P, Bouwman J. Proposed guidelines to evaluate scientific validity and evidence for genotype-based dietary advice. Genes Nutr. 2017 Dec 15;12:35. View >
  2. van Ommen B, van den Broek T, de Hoogh I, van Erk M, van Someren E, Rouhani-Rankouhi T, Anthony JC, Hogenelst K, Pasman W, Boorsma A, Wopereis S. Systems biology of personalized nutrition. Nutr Rev. 2017 Aug 1;75(8):579-599. View >
  3. O'Neill CM, Minihane AM. The impact of fatty acid desaturase genotype on fatty acid status and cardiovascular health in adults. Proc Nutr Soc. 2017 Feb;76(1):64-75. View >
  4. Loos RJ, Yeo GS. The bigger picture of FTO: the first GWAS-identified obesity gene. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2014 Jan;10(1):51-61. View >
  5. Wilson CP, McNulty H, Ward M, Strain JJ, Trouton TG, Hoeft BA, Weber P, Roos FF, Horigan G, McAnena L, Scott JM. Blood pressure in treated hypertensive individuals with the MTHFR 677TT genotype is responsive to intervention with riboflavin: findings of a targeted randomized trial. Hypertension. 2013 Jun;61(6):1302-8. View >
  6. Cornelis MC, Monda KL, Yu K, Paynter N, Azzato EM, Bennett SN, Berndt SI, Boerwinkle E, Chanock S, Chatterjee N, Couper D, Curhan G, Heiss G, Hu FB, Hunter DJ, Jacobs K, Jensen MK, Kraft P, Landi MT, Nettleton JA, Purdue MP, Rajaraman P, Rimm EB, Rose LM, Rothman N, Silverman D, Stolzenberg-Solomon R, Subar A, Yeager M, Chasman DI, van Dam RM, Caporaso NE. Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies regions on 7p21 (AHR) and 15q24 (CYP1A2) as determinants of habitual caffeine consumption. PLoS Genet. 2011 Apr;7(4):e1002033. View >
  7. Johansen CT, Wang J, Lanktree MB, Cao H, McIntyre AD, Ban MR, Martins RA, Kennedy BA, Hassell RG, Visser ME, Schwartz SM, Voight BF, Elosua R, Salomaa V, O'Donnell CJ, Dallinga-Thie GM, Anand SS, Yusuf S, Huff MW, Kathiresan S, Hegele RA. Excess of rare variants in genes identified by genome-wide association study of hypertriglyceridemia. Nat Genet. 2010 Aug;42(8):684-7. View >
  8. McGrath JJ, Saha S, Burne TH, Eyles DW. A systematic review of the association between common single nucleotide polymorphisms and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2010 Jul;121(1-2):471-7. View >
  9. Sparsø T, Andersen G, Nielsen T, Burgdorf KS, Gjesing AP, Nielsen AL, Albrechtsen A, Rasmussen SS, Jørgensen T, Borch-Johnsen K, Sandbaek A, Lauritzen T, Madsbad S, Hansen T, Pedersen O. The GCKR rs780094 polymorphism is associated with elevated fasting serum triacylglycerol, reduced fasting and OGTT-related insulinaemia, and reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia. 2008 Jan;51(1):70-5. View >
  10. van Hoek M, Dehghan A, Witteman JC, van Duijn CM, Uitterlinden AG, Oostra BA, Hofman A, Sijbrands EJ, Janssens AC. Predicting type 2 diabetes based on polymorphisms from genome-wide association studies: a population-based study. Diabetes. 2008 Nov;57(11):3122-8. View >
  11. Willer CJ, Sanna S, Jackson AU, Scuteri A, Bonnycastle LL, Clarke R, Heath SC, Timpson NJ, Najjar SS, Stringham HM, Strait J, Duren WL, Maschio A, Busonero F, Mulas A, Albai G, Swift AJ, Morken MA, Narisu N, Bennett D, Parish S, Shen H, Galan P, Meneton P, Hercberg S, Zelenika D, Chen WM, Li Y, Scott LJ, Scheet PA, Sundvall J, Watanabe RM, Nagaraja R, Ebrahim S, Lawlor DA, Ben-Shlomo Y, Davey-Smith G, Shuldiner AR, Collins R, Bergman RN, Uda M, Tuomilehto J, Cao A, Collins FS, Lakatta E, Lathrop GM, Boehnke M, Schlessinger D, Mohlke KL, Abecasis GR. Newly identified loci that influence lipid concentrations and risk of coronary artery disease. Nat Genet. 2008 Feb;40(2):161-9. View >
  12. Frayling TM, Timpson NJ, Weedon MN, Zeggini E, Freathy RM, Lindgren CM, Perry JR, Elliott KS, Lango H, Rayner NW, Shields B, Harries LW, Barrett JC, Ellard S, Groves CJ, Knight B, Patch AM, Ness AR, Ebrahim S, Lawlor DA, Ring SM, Ben-Shlomo Y, Jarvelin MR, Sovio U, Bennett AJ, Melzer D, Ferrucci L, Loos RJ, Barroso I, Wareham NJ, Karpe F, Owen KR, Cardon LR, Walker M, Hitman GA, Palmer CN, Doney AS, Morris AD, Smith GD, Hattersley AT, McCarthy MI. A common variant in the FTO gene is associated with body mass index and predisposes to childhood and adult obesity. Science. 2007 May 11;316(5826):889-94. View >
  13. Lyssenko V, Lupi R, Marchetti P, Del Guerra S, Orho-Melander M, Almgren P, Sjögren M, Ling C, Eriksson KF, Lethagen AL, Mancarella R, Berglund G, Tuomi T, Nilsson P, Del Prato S, Groop L. Mechanisms by which common variants in the TCF7L2 gene increase risk of type 2 diabetes. J Clin Invest. 2007 Aug;117(8):2155-63. View >
  14. Scott LJ, Mohlke KL, Bonnycastle LL, Willer CJ, Li Y, Duren WL, Erdos MR, Stringham HM, Chines PS, Jackson AU, Prokunina-Olsson L, Ding CJ, Swift AJ, Narisu N, Hu T, Pruim R, Xiao R, Li XY, Conneely KN, Riebow NL, Sprau AG, Tong M, White PP, Hetrick KN, Barnhart MW, Bark CW, Goldstein JL, Watkins L, Xiang F, Saramies J, Buchanan TA, Watanabe RM, Valle TT, Kinnunen L, Abecasis GR, Pugh EW,Doheny KF, Bergman RN, Tuomilehto J, Collins FS, Boehnke M. A genome-wide association study of type 2 diabetes in Finns detects multiple susceptibility variants. Science. 2007 Jun 1;316(5829):1341-5. View >
  15. Dickson ME, Sigmund CD. Genetic basis of hypertension: revisiting angiotensinogen. Hypertension. 2006 Jul;48(1):14-20. View >
  16. Enattah NS, Sahi T, Savilahti E, Terwilliger JD, Peltonen L, Järvelä I. Identification of a variant associated with adult-type hypolactasia. Nat Genet. 2002 Feb;30(2):233-7. View >

Activity Level

References supporting personalized nutrition recommendations based on physical activity level.

  1. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for energy. EFSA Journal 2013;11(1):3005. [112 pp.] doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2013.3005. View >
  2. Donnelly JE, Blair SN, Jakicic JM, Manore MM, Rankin JW, Smith BK; American College of Sports Medicine. American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand. Appropriate physical activity intervention strategies for weight loss and prevention of weight regain for adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009 Feb;41(2):459-71. View >
  3. Mifflin MD, St Jeor ST, Hill LA, Scott BJ, Daugherty SA, Koh YO. A new predictive equation for resting energy expenditure in healthy individuals. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990 Feb;51(2):241-7. View >
  4. FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation. Energy and protein requirements. WHO Technical Report Series 724: 1 – 206.Geneva: World Health Organization, 1985. View >

Goals

Evidence supporting our comprehensive approach to goal setting and behavior change, including clinically proven strategies to support weight management and behavioral strategies shown to promote healthy lifestyle changes.

  1. Hutchesson MJ, Rollo ME, Krukowski R, Ells L, Harvey J, Morgan PJ, CallisterR, Plotnikoff R, Collins CE. eHealth interventions for the prevention and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Obes Rev. 2015 May;16(5):376-92. View >
  2. Jensen MD, Ryan DH, Apovian CM, Ard JD, Comuzzie AG, Donato KA, Hu FB, Hubbard VS, Jakicic JM, Kushner RF, Loria CM, Millen BE, Nonas CA, Pi-Sunyer FX, Stevens J, Stevens VJ, Wadden TA, Wolfe BM, Yanovski SZ, Jordan HS, Kendall KA, Lux LJ, Mentor-Marcel R, Morgan LC, Trisolini MG, Wnek J, Anderson JL, Halperin JL, Albert NM, Bozkurt B, Brindis RG, Curtis LH, DeMets D, Hochman JS, Kovacs RJ, Ohman EM, Pressler SJ, Sellke FW, Shen WK, Smith SC Jr, Tomaselli GF; American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines; Obesity Society. 2013 AHA/ACC/TOS guideline for the management of overweight and obesity in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and The Obesity Society. Circulation. 2014 Jun 24;129(25 Suppl 2):S102-38. View >
  3. Butryn ML, Webb V, Wadden TA. Behavioral treatment of obesity. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2011 Dec;34(4):841-59. View >
  4. Cole-Lewis H, Kershaw T. Text messaging as a tool for behavior change in disease prevention and management. Epidemiol Rev. 2010;32:56-69. View >
  5. Choosing a Safe and Successful Weight-Loss Program, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes & Digestive & Kidney Diseases, NIH Publication No. 08-3700, April 2008. View >
  6. Niemeier HM, Phelan S, Fava JL, Wing RR. Internal disinhibition predicts weight regain following weight loss and weight loss maintenance. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007 Oct;15(10):2485-94. View >
  7. Linde JA, Jeffery RW, French SA, Pronk NP, Boyle RG. Self-weighing in weight gain prevention and weight loss trials. Ann Behav Med. 2005 Dec;30(3):210-6. View >
  8. Foster GD, Makris AP, Bailer BA. Behavioral treatment of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jul;82(1 Suppl):230S-235S. View >
  9. DeLillo V, Siegfried J, Smith West D. Incorporating motivational interviewing into behavioral obesity treatment. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice. 2003;10:120-130. View >
  10. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) Research Group. The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP): description of lifestyle intervention. Diabetes Care. 2002 Dec;25(12):2165-71. View >
  11. Foster GD, Wadden TA, Swain RM, Stunkard AJ, Platte P, Vogt RA. The Eating Inventory in obese women: clinical correlates and relationship to weight loss. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1998 Aug;22(8):778-85. Erratum in: Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1999 Jan;23(1):106. View >

Body Measurements & More

References outlining body measurements and miscellaneous health markers that are clinically validated to influence nutrition recommendations.

  1. Whelton PK, Carey RM, Aronow WS, Casey DE Jr, Collins KJ, Dennison Himmelfarb C, DePalma SM, Gidding S, Jamerson KA, Jones DW, MacLaughlin EJ, Muntner P, Ovbiagele B, Smith SC Jr, Spencer CC, Stafford RS, Taler SJ, Thomas RJ, Williams KA Sr, Williamson JD, Wright JT Jr. 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017 Nov 7. pii: S0735-1097(17)41519-1. View >
  2. World Health Organization. (‎2011)‎. Waist circumference and waist-hip ratio: report of a WHO expert consultation, Geneva, 8-11 December 2008. Geneva: World Health Organization. View >
  3. Institute of Medicine (IOM). Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 2005. View >
  4. The Practical Guide: Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults. [Bethesda, Md.]: National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, NHLBI Obesity Education Initiative, North American Association for the Study of Obesity, 2000. Print. View >

Decision-Tree Logic

References validating the use of decision trees to translate your health markers into personalized nutrition recommendations.

  1. O'Donovan CB, Walsh MC, Woolhead C, Forster H, Celis-Morales C, Fallaize R, Macready AL, Marsaux CFM, Navas-Carretero S, Rodrigo San-Cristobal S, Kolossa S, Tsirigoti L, Mvrogianni C, Lambrinou CP, Moschonis G, Godlewska M, Surwillo A, Traczyk I, Drevon CA, Daniel H, Manios Y, Martinez JA, Saris WHM, Lovegrove JA, Mathers JC, Gibney MJ, Gibney ER, Brennan L. Metabotyping for the development of tailored dietary advice solutions in a European population: the Food4Me study. Br J Nutr. 2017 Oct;118(8):561-569. View >
  2. Celis-Morales C, Livingstone KM, Marsaux CF, Forster H, O'Donovan CB, Woolhead C, Macready AL, Fallaize R, Navas-Carretero S, San-Cristobal R, Kolossa S, Hartwig K, Tsirigoti L, Lambrinou CP, Moschonis G, Godlewska M, Surwiłło A, Grimaldi K, Bouwman J, Daly EJ, Akujobi V, O'Riordan R, Hoonhout J, Claassen A, Hoeller U, Gundersen TE, Kaland SE, Matthews JN, Manios Y, Traczyk I, Drevon CA, Gibney ER, Brennan L, Walsh MC, Lovegrove JA, Alfredo Martinez J, Saris WH, Daniel H, Gibney M, Mathers JC. Design and baseline characteristics of the Food4Me study: a web-based randomised controlled trial of personalised nutrition in seven European countries. Genes Nutr. 2015 Jan;10(1):450. View >

Heart Health & Weight Management

Key references supporting nutrition recommendations for heart health and weight management.

  1. Leidy HJ, Clifton PM, Astrup A, Wycherley TP, Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Luscombe-Marsh ND, Woods SC, Mattes RD. The role of protein in weight loss and maintenance. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Apr 29. View >
  2. Eckel RH, Jakicic JM, Ard JD, de Jesus JM, Houston Miller N, Hubbard VS, Lee IM, Lichtenstein AH, Loria CM, Millen BE, Nonas CA, Sacks FM, Smith SC Jr, Svetkey LP, Wadden TA, Yanovski SZ; American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. 2013 AHA/ACC guideline on lifestyle management to reduce cardiovascular risk: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014 Jul 1;63(25 Pt B):2960-84. View >
  3. Ramage S, Farmer A, Eccles KA, McCargar L. Healthy strategies for successful weight loss and weight maintenance: a systematic review. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2014 Jan;39(1) 1-20. View >
  4. Kolovou GD, Mikhailidis DP, Kovar J, Lairon D, Nordestgaard BG, Ooi TC, Perez-Martinez P, Bilianou H, Anagnostopoulou K, Panotopoulos G. Assessment and clinical relevance of non-fasting and postprandial triglycerides: an expert panel statement. Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2011 May;9(3):258-70. View >

Habit Type Recommendations

Based on your biology, goals, and activity level, your Habit Type recommendation resembles a clinically validated healthy diet.

  1. Anton SD, Hida A, Heekin K, Sowalsky K, Karabetian C, Mutchie H, Leeuwenburgh C, Manini TM, Barnett TE. Effects of Popular Diets without Specific Calorie Targets on Weight Loss Outcomes: Systematic Review of Findings from Clinical Trials. Nutrients. 2017 Jul 31;9(8). View >
  2. Derbyshire EJ. Flexitarian Diets and Health: A Review of the Evidence-Based Literature. Front Nutr. 2017 Jan 6;3:55. View >
  3. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture. 2015 – 2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. 8th Edition. December 2015. View >
  4. Huo R, Du T, Xu Y, Xu W, Chen X, Sun K, Yu X. Effects of Mediterranean-style diet on glycemic control, weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors among type 2 diabetes individuals: a meta-analysis. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2015 Nov;69(11):1200-8. View >
  5. Manheimer EW, van Zuuren EJ, Fedorowicz Z, Pijl H. Paleolithic nutrition for metabolic syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Oct;102(4):922-32. View >
  6. Gudzune KA, Doshi RS, Mehta AK, Chaudhry ZW, Jacobs DK, Vakil RM, Lee CJ, Bleich SN, Clark JM. Efficacy of commercial weight-loss programs: an updated systematic review. Ann Intern Med. 2015 Apr 7;162(7):501-12. View >
  7. Atallah R, Filion KB, Wakil SM, Genest J, Joseph L, Poirier P, Rinfret S, Schiffrin EL, Eisenberg MJ. Long-term effects of 4 popular diets on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2014 Nov;7(6):815-27. View >
  8. Perez-Cornago A, van Baak MA, Saris WHM, Martinez JA, Astrup A. The role of protein and carbohydrate for long-term weight control: Lessons from the DiOgenes trial. Current Nutr Rep. 2014; 3; 379-386. View >
  9. de Souza RJ, Swain JF, Appel LJ, Sacks FM. Alternatives for macronutrient intake and chronic disease: a comparison of the OmniHeart diets with popular diets and with dietary recommendations. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jul;88(1):1-11. View >
  10. Ma Y, Pagoto SL, Griffith JA, Merriam PA, Ockene IS, Hafner AR, Olendzki BC. A dietary quality comparison of popular weight-loss plans. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007 Oct;107(10):1786-91. View >
  11. Appel LJ, Sacks FM, Carey VJ, Obarzanek E, Swain JF, Miller ER 3rd, Conlin PR, Erlinger TP, Rosner BA, Laranjo NM, Charleston J, McCarron P, Bishop LM; OmniHeart Collaborative Research Group. Effects of protein, monounsaturated fat, and carbohydrate intake on blood pressure and serum lipids: results of the OmniHeart randomized trial. JAMA. 2005 Nov 16;294(19):2455-64. View >

Personalized Nutrient Recommendations

Key references supporting tailored macro and micronutrient recommendations based on personal factors such as age, sex, life stage, biology, goals, and/or preferences.

  1. Weickert MO, Pfeiffer AFH. Impact of Dietary Fiber Consumption on Insulin Resistance and the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes. J Nutr. 2018 Jan 1;148(1):7-12. View >
  2. Chen JP, Chen GC, Wang XP, Qin L, Bai Y. Dietary Fiber and Metabolic Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis and Review of Related Mechanisms. Nutrients. 2017 Dec 26;10(1). View >
  3. Garvey WT, Mechanick JI, Brett EM, Garber AJ, Hurley DL, Jastreboff AM, Nadolsky K, Pessah-Pollack R, Plodkowski R; Reviewers of the AACE/ACE Obesity Clinical Practice Guidelines. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY COMPREHENSIVE CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR MEDICAL CARE OF PATIENTS WITH OBESITY. Endocr Pract. 2016 Jul;22 Suppl 3:1-203. View >
  4. Ursoniu S, Sahebkar A, Andrica F, Serban C, Banach M; Lipid and Blood Pressure Meta analysis Collaboration (LBPMC) Group. Effects of flaxseed supplements on blood pressure: A systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled clinical trial. Clin Nutr. 2016 Jun 35(3):615-25. View >
  5. Minihane AM, Armah CK, Miles EA, Madden JM, Clark AB, Caslake MJ, Packard CJ, Kofler BM, Lietz G, Curtis PJ, Mathers JC, Williams CM, Calder PC. Consumption of Fish Oil Providing Amounts of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid That Can Be Obtained from the Diet Reduces Blood Pressure in Adults with Systolic Hypertension: A Retrospective Analysis. J. Nutr. 2016;146(3):516-23. View >
  6. Hollænder PL, Ross AB, Kristensen M. Whole-grain and blood lipid changes in apparently healthy adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Sep;102(3):556-72. View >
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